Liberation movement theory refers to the theory whereby the oppressed people find social, political, and individual development through freedom from being dominated. Popular education, non-formal education, and liberation theories played a critical role in emancipating the masses in Guatemala republic and other countries (Winfrey 253).
For democracy to grow and be alive, it must be fed and nurtured. A democracy that cannot be imagined or rather malnourished democracy may eventually lead to an uprising. Successful uprisings rescue people from oppressive government structures that hold back, the economy, political, and social power of the citizens (Winfrey 253).
Role of U.S in Self Determination of Guatemala
During 1954, the united nation security (UN) council (SC) embrace Resolution S/3237, which calls for the “immediate stopping of any action which probably results in more bloodshed” in Guatemala. However, the Soviet Union vetoed it. The U.S intervenes in Guatemala by exaggerating the possible threat posed by the government of Arbenz (Getchell, 75). The U.S government intervenes in the liberation of Guatemala by instructing the state department and CIA to collect and fabricate evidence to be used in the OAS demonstration. The demonstration was meant to portray Guatemala as a possible danger to the solidarity of the Hemispheric. And the stability of the friendly nation because of their too much Communist subversion (Getchell, 82).
Role of U.S in Self-Determination of Vietnam
During 1960 and 1961, more than 3000 civilians were killed in Vietnam. Approximately 2500 individuals were kidnapped. Aggression from the north rises. People from different areas from within sovereignty under Viet Cong control were compelled to offer both recruits and food for the insurgents (History.navy.mil 9). This provided a better chance for Viet Cong to upscale their attack with massive units, up to battalion size. The U.S military and economic aids to Vietnam people were largely increased.
The goal of U.S assistance was to provide opposition to the communist-inspired and regulated insurgency (History.navy.mil 14). The objective of U.S aid to Vietnam was to end the fighting and terrorist activities in South Vietnam. Secondly, it was to preserve the freedom of the South Vietnamese citizens to develop based on their own desires, and without foreign interference and serve the policy of any other nation. Lastly, establish the authority of the Government in Saigon in the entire territory south of the 17th parallel (History.navy.mil 8).
Influence of Popular Culture on Television, Segregation, and Domesticity
Influence Of 1950s Popular Culture on Television
During the 1950s, the United States had advanced both culturally and socially. The country had made enormous strides in terms of arts, governance, civil rights, technology, and science. It leads to the introduction of a mass medium, specifically TV, which perform an excellent job. It served several pictures for the entire nation (Dunn 6). Of particular interest are the popular culture and American cultural story. The period was unique and demonstrated culture that transcends during that period. It was marked by various kinds of music, clothing, the prejudices, the fixations, the crazes, and the pastimes. It explained the manner in which current events are framed and discussed; the tendency of conformity and compliance, behavior, and mode of speech became mainstreamed (Dunn 7).
Influence of Popular Culture on Segregation and Domesticity
The 1950 popular culture provided several narratives that exhibited a population threatened and weakened by sexually dangerous men and women (Meyerowitz 298). At that period, the state increases the use of police to maintain law and order pertaining to sexualized behaviors. Particularly, it emphasizes fighting homosexuality. The government fired lesbian and gay men form their jobs, expelled from the military, and withhold their veteran’s benefits (Meyerowitz 299).
In domesticity, the period marked the time of compliance with traditional obligations. Moreover, it was a decade that saw the transformation of dissatisfaction and the status quo. The mass media and popular culture strengthened consumer culture, gender roles, and the Cold War exemplary of domesticity. African and American women faced a lot of challenges in pursuing war materials (Noutsou 115).
How President Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and Jimmy Carter Address the Challenges of Cold War
The Reagan administration addressed the issue of the Cold War by offering covert and overt support to resistance movement forged against communism. This strategy was effective in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. He deployed CIA special activities’ division to Pakistan and Afghanistan to offer training and equipment, which enable Mujaheddin forces fighting against the Soviet Army. He introduced the strategic defense initiative (SDI) and orchestrated the bombing of various countries like Libya and Lebanon. Another strategy was the secret weapon sale.
Jimmy Carter offered nonlethal supplies to the mujahideen rebelling forces to fight the regime supported by the Soviet Union. He also uses the Olympic boycott. During 1980, he persuaded the Olympic committee to halt competition with Moscow during the upcoming Olympics games. Secondly, he also stopped the U.S technology used to manufacture the Olympic product. Another strategy that carter used was the stoppage of NBVc from making payment of US dollar 20 million owed to the USSR meant to broadcast Olympics.
Richard Nixon advocated for strategic regulation of arms during the Cold War. Nixon entered an agreement known as SALTS. He reached out to an agreement that leads to a stoppage of usage of certain nuclear weapons. For example, the use of antiballistic missiles was regulated. The agreement stopped the USSR from developing antiballistic missiles ( GARRITY 1).
On the other hand, Carter stated an aggressive Cold War military strategy. He announced the Carter Doctrine, which stated that the USSR was attempting to gain control of entire Afghanistan. This was termed as a threat to U.S. interests (Lowenstein 3). And Carter was ready to encounter the threat with the military force. He further poised in his speech a five-year spending plan to upgrade and reinforced the military since he was aware the post-Vietnam military reduction crippled the U.S. against the USSR.
Dunn, Mark. Quizzing America: Television Game Shows and Popular Culture in the 1950s. McFarland, 2018.
GARRITY, P. J. (2015). Nixon and arms control. https://prde.upress.virginia.edu/content/nixon_SALT
Getchell, Michelle Denise. “Revisiting the 1954 Coup in Guatemala: The Soviet Union, the United Nations, and ‘Hemispheric Solidarity.’” Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, Apr. 2015, pp. 73–102. DOI.org (Crossref), DOI:10.1162/JCWS_a_00549.
Lowenstein, Julie. US Foreign Policy and the Soviet-Afghan War: A Revisionist History. p. 79. https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=applebaum_award
Meyerowitz, Joanne. The Liberal 1950s? Reinterpreting Postwar American Sexual Culture. p. 23. https://history.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/liberal%2050s.pdf
Noutsou, Styliani. A philosophy of home: a study on an alternative experience of domesticity. Diss. University of Sussex, 2018.